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    Where Did Backgammon Come From


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    Where Did Backgammon Come From

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    Where Did Backgammon Come From Where Did Backgammon Get Its Name? Video

    The five basic strategies of backgammon

    Certain passages in literature indicate the name backgammon was first used around the mids although the exact origin of the word is not clear. It may have come from the Welsh words baec (back) and cammaun (battle) or possibly the Middle English words of baec (back) and gamen (game). Backgammon is one of the oldest games in existence, alongside Go and Chess. It is probably about 5, years old and may well have originated in what today is Iraq—previously Mesopotamia. Recent evidence supporting this was found when these very early dice (made of human bones) were discovered in the area. Backgammon is one of the world's oldest known board games. It has its roots in the Roman Empire. After a lengthy tour of various versions of the game through the middle east and Asia, it showed up in England in the 16th century. The name "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English "gamen", meaning "game" or "play". Backgammon is one of the oldest known board guinnessontap.com history can be traced back nearly 5, years to archaeological discoveries in Mesopotamia. It is a two-player game where each player has fifteen pieces (checkers or men) that move between twenty-four triangles (points) according to the roll of two dice. The earliest known record of a backgammon-like game were the Egyptian/Iraqi games of senet and the Royal Game of Ur, dating back to around BC. The game of 'nard' was popular in ancient Persia. Backgammon is one of the world's oldest known board games. It has its roots in the Roman Empire. After a lengthy tour of various versions of the game through the middle east and Asia, it showed up in England in the 16th century. The name "backgammon" is most likely derived from "back" and Middle English "gamen", meaning "game" or "play". Backgammon is one of the oldest games in existence, alongside Go and Chess. It is probably about 5, years old and may well have originated in what today is Iraq—previously Mesopotamia. Recent evidence supporting this was found when these very early . The ancient game of Backgammon evolved over thousands of years into the game we know today. Its oldest known probable ancestor is the Egyptian game called "Senet" (or sometimes Senat, known to the Egyptians as "the game of thirty squares") which was played on a board of 3 x 10 squares with dice and dates back to at least 3, BC.

    As mentioned earlier backgammon became popular in the 17th century especially when the Saxons used the terms "bac" and "gamen," which literally means back and game respectively to describe how the game was played.

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    So, when European crusaders came to the Middle East for holy war in the 12th century, they were exposed to the game, too. It was so popular with soldiers in the Christian army that playing it for money became subject to strict rules—betting was only allowed for the knightly class and above, and even they had restrictions.

    King John liked to play tables with some of his court, and they even placed some modest bets. Unlike Caligula, King John seems to have played nice and fair, noting his payouts in his book of daily expenses when he lost.

    If the nobles enjoy something, commoners will follow suit if they can afford it, so backgammon spread across social stratification. Regardless, the game was ubiquitous.

    Man, that takes me back to struggling through Middle English courses in college. Worth every penny. The final snag preventing full cultural acceptance of tables appears to be its classification as a game of luck, rather than one of skill, since it uses dice, and that makes it sinful, I guess?

    There is luck, sure, but it is indeed a game of skill because I suck at it. But then I consider how many layers of clothing Elizabethans wore all the time, and you know what?

    Maybe backgammon was a sport back then. Tables was popular throughout Europe during the middle ages and was an extremely popular game in English taverns at that time.

    Chess overtook it in popularity in the 15th-century and by the end of the 16th-century Tables had become a general term for a game played with pieces on a flat board or table.

    The first reference to the game as "Backgammon" is dated to AD and there is some conjecture and debate over how the name was derived.

    One theory is that the name was derived from the Middle English or Saxon word "gam" meaning "game" and "bac" meaning "back" and so probably meant "the game where you can go back", a reference to a blot in which a player's marker has been sent to the bar and must start its journey around the board from the start.

    Another theory is that it is derived from the Welsh words "back" meaning "little" and "gammon" meaning "battle". The rules to Backgammon were modified somewhat in the early 17th-century when the game underwent a huge popular revival sweeping across Europe where it was known by a number of different names in different countries which have mostly remained in use to this day.

    Edmund Hoyle published the first official rules for Backgammon in Hoyle has become famous for his proper rules for allsorts of games ranging from playing-cards to board games.

    The doubling cube a die marked 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 64 was anonymously invented in New York in for gambling purposes and its introduction led to much of the gaming attraction of Backgammon, favouring the more skilled players capable of judging their chances according to game positions.

    During the early 20th-century Backgammon was generally played by the upper class at home and in private clubs. In the USA in Backgammon rules were modified again into what generally is considered the proper rules of the game today.

    Backgammon enjoyed yet another revival prior to the First World War but its popularity waned during the mid 20th-century only to undergo another popular revival during the s.

    Walker concluded that backgammon is a game of skill, not a game of chance, and found the defendant, backgammon tournament director Ted Barr, not guilty of promoting gambling.

    Early Muslim scholars forbade backgammon. Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon.

    A backgammon chouette permits three or more players to participate in a single game, often for money. One player competes against a team of all the other participants, and positions rotate after each game.

    Chouette play often permits the use of multiple doubling cubes. Backgammon clubs may also organize tournaments. Large club tournaments sometimes draw competitors from other regions, with final matches viewed by hundreds of spectators.

    Winners at major tournaments may receive prizes of tens of thousands of dollars. Starting in January , tournament directors began awarding GammonPoints, [43] a free points registry for tournament directors and players, with GammonPoint awards based on the number of players and strength of field.

    The first world championship competition in backgammon was held in Las Vegas , Nevada in Tim Holland was declared the winner that year and at the tournament the following year.

    For unknown reasons, there was no championship in , but in , Tim Holland again won the title. The competition remained in Las Vegas until , when it moved to Paradise Island in the Bahamas.

    In , Lewis Deyong, who had promoted the Bahamas World Championship for the prior three years, suggested that the two events be combined.

    By the 21st century, the largest international tournaments had established the basis of a tour for top professional players. Major tournaments are held yearly worldwide.

    PartyGaming sponsored the first World Series of Backgammon in from Cannes and later the "Backgammon Million" tournament held in the Bahamas in January with a prize pool of one million dollars, the largest for any tournament to date.

    The event was recorded for television in Europe and aired on Eurosport. The World Backgammon Association WBA [47] has been holding the biggest backgammon tour on the circuit since , the "European Backgammon Tour" [48] EBGT.

    In , the WBA collaborated with the online backgammon provider Play65 for the season of the European Backgammon Tour and with "Betfair" in When backgammon is played for money , the most common arrangement is to assign a monetary value to each point, and to play to a certain score, or until either player chooses to stop.

    The stakes are raised by gammons, backgammons, and use of the doubling cube. Backgammon is sometimes available in casinos.

    Before the commercialization of artificial neural network programs, proposition bets on specific positions were very common among backgammon players and gamblers.

    The game is included in Clubhouse Games: 51 Worldwide Classics for the Nintendo Switch , a collection of tabletop games.

    Backgammon software has been developed not only to play and analyze games, but also to facilitate play between humans over the internet.

    Dice rolls are provided by random or pseudorandom number generators. Real-time online play began with the First Internet Backgammon Server in July , [51] [52] but there are now a range of options, [53] many of which are commercial.

    Backgammon has been studied considerably by computer scientists. Neural networks and other approaches have offered significant advances to software for gameplay and analysis.

    The first strong computer opponent was BKG 9. It was written by Hans Berliner in the late s on a DEC PDP as an experiment in evaluating board game positions.

    Early versions of BKG played badly even against poor players, but Berliner noticed that its critical mistakes were always at transitional phases in the game.

    He applied principles of fuzzy logic to improve its play between phases, and by July , BKG 9. It won the match 7—1, becoming the first computer program to defeat a world champion in any board game.

    Berliner stated that the victory was largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls.

    In the late s, backgammon programmers found more success with an approach based on artificial neural networks.

    TD-Gammon , developed by Gerald Tesauro of IBM , was the first of these programs to play near the expert level. Its neural network was trained using temporal difference learning applied to data generated from self-play.

    Tesauro proposed using rollout analysis to compare the performance of computer algorithms against human players. The rollout score of the human or the computer is the difference of the average game results by following the selected move versus following the best move, then averaged for the entire set of taken moves.

    Neural network research has resulted in three modern proprietary programs , JellyFish, [56] Snowie [57] and eXtreme Gammon, [58] as well as the shareware BGBlitz [59] and the free software GNU Backgammon.

    The strength of these programs lies in their neural networks' weights tables, which are the result of months of training. Without them, these programs play no better than a human novice.

    For the bearoff phase, backgammon software usually relies on a database containing precomputed equities for all possible bearoff positions.

    Computer-versus-computer competitions are also held at Computer Olympiad events. The history of backgammon can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq.

    The Royal Game of Ur from BCE may also be an ancestor or intermediate of modern-day table games like backgammon.

    It used tetrahedral dice. Various other other board games spanning from the 10th to 7th centuries BCE have been found throughout modern day Iraq, Syria, Egypt and western Iran.

    Today the game in various forms continues to be commonly played in Iraq, Lebanon, Egypt, Syria, Jordan throughout the Arab world.

    In the modern Arab Levant and Iraq, the game is commonly called tawle , which means table. This may represent a shared name origin with the Roman or Byzantine variant of the game.

    It is also commonly referred to by shesh besh shesh meaining six in Hebrew , Aramaic and Northwest Semitic , and besh meaning five in Turkish , amongst Arabs as well as by some Kurdish, Persian and Turkish speakers.

    Shesh Besh is commonly used to refer to when a player scores a 5 and 6 at the same time on dice. An older game resembling backgammon may have also been played in the easternmost part of the prehistoric Iranian plateau , far from Mesopotamia.

    The rules of this game, like others found in Egypt, have yet to be deciphered. It is however made from ebony, a material more likely to be found in the Indian subcontinent which indicates such board games may be more widespread than once thought.

    In the 11th century Shahnameh , the Persian poet Ferdowsi credits Burzoe with the invention of the tables game nard in the 6th century.

    He describes an encounter between Burzoe and a Raja visiting from India. The Raja introduces the game of chess , and Burzoe demonstrates nard , played with dice made from ivory and teak.

    Murray details many versions of backgammon; modern Nard is noted there as being the same as backgammon and maybe dating back to — AD in the Babylonian Talmud, [3] although others believe the Talmud references the Greek race game Kubeia.

    Iranologist Touraj Daryaee , Chair of Persian Studies at U. Irvine, on the first written mention of earlier variants of backgammon—writes:. The use of dice for the game is another indication of its Indic origin since dice and gambling were a favorite pastime in ancient India.

    According to the historical legend, the Indian king Dewisarm sends his minister Taxritos to Persia with the game of chess , and a letter challenging Sasanian King Khosrow I to solve the riddle or rationale for the game.

    Khosrow asks for three days to decipher the game, but initially, no-one in the court is able to make any progress.

    On the third day, Khosrow's minister, Wuzurgmihr, successfully rises and explains the logic of the game.

    As a reciprocal challenge, Wuzurgmihr constructs the game of backgammon and delivers it to the Indian king who is unable to decipher the game.

    There are two games of nardi commonly played:. Short nardi : Set-up and rules are the same as backgammon. Long nardi : A game that starts with all fifteen checkers placed in one line on the point and on the point.

    The two players move their checkers in opposing directions, from the point towards the 1-point, or home board. In long nardi , one checker by itself can block a point.

    There is no hitting in long nardi. The objective of the game is bearing all checkers off the board, and there is no doubling cube. It is described in an epigram of Byzantine Emperor Zeno AD — Like today, each player had 15 checkers and used cubical dice with sides numbered one to six.

    The only differences from modern backgammon were the use of an extra die three rather than two and the starting of all pieces off the board with them entering in the same way that pieces on the bar enter in modern backgammon.

    Zeno, who was white, had a stack of seven checkers, three stacks of two checkers and two "blots", checkers that stand alone on a point and are therefore in danger of being put outside the board by an incoming opponent checker.

    Zeno threw the three dice with which the game was played and obtained 2, 5 and 6. As in backgammon, Zeno could not move to a space occupied by two opponent black pieces.

    The white and black checkers were so distributed on the points that the only way to use all of the three results, as required by the game rules, was to break the three stacks of two checkers into blots, exposing them and ruining the game for Zeno.

    The earliest known mention of the game is in Ovid 's Ars Amatoria 'The Art of Love' , written between 1 BC and 8 AD. In Roman times, this game was also known as alea , and a likely apocryphal Latin story linked this name, and the game, to a Trojan soldier named Alea.

    Race board games involving dice have existed for millennia in the Near East and eastern Mediterranean, including the game senet of Ancient Egypt.

    Senet was excavated, along with illustrations, from Egyptian royal tombs dating to BC. The usual Tavla rules are same as in the neighboring Arab countries and Greece, as established over a millennium ago, [68] but there are also many quite different variants.

    Players try to flip their pieces over the opponents' pieces to beat them. Backgammon is popular among Greeks. It is a game in which Greeks usually tease their opponent and create a lively atmosphere.

    Portes: Set-up and rules the same as backgammon, except that backgammons count as gammons 2 points and there is no doubling cube.

    Where Did Backgammon Come From Welcome to Backgammon - Lord of the Board - If you LOVE playing online Backgammon with friends then you have come to the right place! Even if you are a. It does, however, come without backgammon cups, which I should've realized beforehand. For the board itself, it's extremely slick, so the chips slide very easily if. Oct 7, - games: Paloma Backgammon Set | WOLFUM {preserve} Backgammon Set (that is so incredibly visually pleasing its unbelievable) Backgammon, Kings Table Pen And Paper GamesOld ThingsThings To Come​Maritime MuseumCamping GamesFamily Don't know how to play it, but it'd look great on. Come back to improve your backgammon skills and watch your stats soar! Lots of better games out there but Heroz does have the best user. Humor in Early IslamBRILL p. Where did the game backgammon originate? Backgammon has been associated with aristocracy and the ruling class throughout its long history. Berliner stated that the victory TiefgrГјndige Entweder Oder Fragen largely a matter of luck, as the computer received more favorable dice rolls. Unlock new and exciting content as you progress within the backgammon game. Version 5. Kompatibel mit iPhone, iPad Treasure Hunt Spiel iPod touch. Goodgam Poker - Board Game Club. The history of backgammon can be traced back nearly 5, years to its origins in Mesopotamia modern-day Iraq. The popularity of Backgammon also reached the Orient especially the East Asian countries. Points 1 through 6 Rose Tequila called the home board or inner board, and points 7 through 12 are called the outer board. In money play, the theoretically correct checker play and cube action would never vary based on the score. The name Tables refers to the ancient game of Backgammon. Hoyle has become famous for his proper rules for allsorts of games ranging from playing-cards to board games. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? For example, a player leading a 9-point match by a score of 7—5 would be very reluctant to turn the doubling cube, as their opponent could take and make a costless redouble to 4, placing the entire outcome of the match on the current game. Iranologist Touraj DaryaeeChair of Persian Studies at U. Irvine, on the first written mention of earlier variants of backgammon—writes:. In their idealized version, the probability of winning varies randomly over time by Brownian motionand there are no gammons or backgammons. Both players have 15 "men" at the beginning of a Backgammon game. Play media. At the start of each game, the doubling Jungle Jam Spiel is placed on the midpoint of the bar with the number 64 showing; the cube is then Where Did Backgammon Come From to be "centered, on 1". Enthusiasts have formed clubs for social play of backgammon.

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    Backgammon ist eine Mischung aus Strategie- und Glücksspiel, wobei der.

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